Academic Index

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Manuscripts, scholars, translations, etymology and theories about the Four Branches of the Mabinogi. If a name or word is a link, there is a longer article in the Mabinogi Encyclopedia section.
The Quick Mabinogi Index is a list like this one, with persons, places, objects and ideas within the text: it has some overlap with this one. My searchable Mabinogi Bibliography. is a comprehensive, searchable database of over 1,000 books, articles and media.

MS, MSSManuscript, manuscripts. Standard acronym.
700 c.CymruThe native name for the people began to displace Britones. Wealas/ Wales was Saxon.
1100 - 1500Middle WelshThe manuscript language of the Mabinogi. Middle Welsh dates from c. 1100 when Anglo-Norman influences caused identifiable changes. Before that was Old Welsh dating back to the root Brythonic language.
1100 c.MabinogiA set of tightly interconnected Middle Welsh tales, presented as Pedair Cainc, the Four Branches.
1100 c. compilationPedair Cainc MabinogiThe Four Branches, Pedair Cainc Mabinogi, are a tightly interconnected set of tales in four parts, usually considered compiled by one author c. 1100 in the oral tradition. 1. Pwyll. 2. Branwen. 3. Manawyddan. 4. Math. By 1300 they were being written down in mediaeval *manuscripts. The name 'Mabinogi' derives from 'mab' youth, but its full meaning is debated. See *Mabinogi name. In the larger, much less coherent collection named 'The *Mabinogion' (usually 11 tales) the Pedair Cainc, the Four Branches of the Mabinogi is always included.
1200sTriadsSets of 3 persons, places or objects of significance, presumably preserved in triads as a mnemonic device of bardic lore. The earliest MS. date to 3rd quarter 13thC. Some well known triads, not in Bromwich's 1961 collection, are forgeries by Iolo Morgannwg.
1225 c.Peniarth 6Peniarth 6 MS. 3 Mabinogi fragments, Second and Third Branch. 1 fragment Gereint ap Erbin. At NLW. Dated c. 1225.
1250 - 1325Peniarth MSS.Manuscripts the NLW received from the Peniarth library. See *MANUSCRIPTS LIST.
1250 c.Matholwch, MallolwchPeniarth 6 MS. fragment c. 1225 the name is Mallolwch, also twice by Gogynfeirdd. Poss. influenced by Mabinogi Matholwch became typical name for Irishman. (Bromwich Triads 1961: 450-1) Mallolwch used by Gantz 1976.
1250 c. - late 14thCFragment MSS.Earliest surviving fragment of the Mabinogi: Branwen and Manawyddan. See *MANUSCRIPTS LIST.
1250s - 1400sMANUSCRIPTS LIST- Peniarth MS. 6. NLW MS. Peniarth 6 part iv – p.17:1. Fragment; incomplete "Branwen", "Manawyddan" and 'Geraint.' Mid 13thC.
-- Peniarth MS. 14. pp.101-90 – p.180:18. Almost complete 'Peredur.' Mid 13thC.
-- Peniarth MS. 7. NLW MS. Peniarth 7 – p.5r:5:1. Fragment 'Peredur.' Late 13thC.
-- Peniarth MS. 4: 2 vols. Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch. Earliest surviving collection of 'The Mabinogion' tales, except Rhonabwy. c. 1300-1325.
-- Jesus MS. 111. Llyfr Coch Hergest. Complete version 'The Mabinogion' (11 tales) incl. Rhonabwy; c. 1375-1425.
-- Jesus MS. 20 incomplete version of 'Owain' Late 14thC.
1300 - 1350 c.Llyfr TaliesinMyth tradition, 6thC bard, and bardic school. 'Hanes Taliesin' myths and poems recorded in Llyfr Taliesin MS, first half 14thC, since 1904 NLW Peniarth MS 2. 'The Mabinogion' by Guest includes Taliesin texts 1849, Part VII, and subsequent editions. Ford 1977 includes it. Other Mabinogion collections do not.
1300 c.Cymru dominant nameSee c. 700 this name now grew to be the dominant native name for the people. Britones displaced.
1300 c. - 1904Llyfr Gwyn, historyFrom *Rhydderch ab Ieuan Llwyd c. 1300-1325; by c. 1450 kept at Rhiwedog, near Bala. 1573 Transcript by Richard Langford of Trefalun. 1580 -1607 Transcript Roger Morris from Coedytalwrn. c. 1594 Transcript Sir Thomas Wiliems. Transcript Jasper Gryffyth (d. 1614). c. 1634 Owned by Flintshire antiquary and copyist, John Jones of Gellilyfdy. After 1634 catalogued by Dr John Davies of Mallwyd, some leaves lost. c. 1658 Owned Robert Vaughan, library Hengwrt, Merionethshire. 1859 Owned W. W. E. Wynne, Peniarth. 1904 Bought by Sir John Williams, presented it to the National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth.
1300-1325 c.LLYFR GWYN RHYDDERCHThe older of the two main mediaeval MSS, with 'gwyn' white cover. Omits 'Rhonabwy.' Poss compiled with other material near. Ceredigion: prob for Rhydderch ab Ieuan Llwyd (c. 1325-1400) from Parcrhydderch. At NLW Aberystwyth since 1904.
NLW Peniarth MS 4, 2 vols, Mabinogi in 2nd vol.
'Y gainc gyntaf' NLW MS. Peniarth 4 (Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch, 2) – p.1r:1:1.
'Yr ail gainc' NLW MS. Peniarth 4 (Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch, part 2) – p.10r:38:12.
'Y drydedd gainc' NLW MS. Peniarth 4 (Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch, 2) – p.16r:61:20
'Y bedwaredd gainc' NLW MS. Peniarth 4 (Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch, part 2) – p.21r:81:20
See also *MANUSCRIPTS LIST and *Translations. *Diplomatic edition Evans 1907.
1300-1325 c.White Book of RhydderchSee Llyfr Gwyn.
1325 - 1400 c.Rhydderch ab Ieuan LlwydOf Parcrhydderch. Likely commissioner of the Llyfr Gwyn, prob.compiled nr. Ceredigion.
1330 - 1408Hopcyn ap Thomas fab EinonCommissioned the Llyfr Coch Hergest manuscript. Compiled near Swansea, either by monastic scribes or Oxford scholars. Hopcyn connected to Owain Glyn Dwr rising.
1375-1425 c.LLYFR COCH HERGESTEarliest complete source text of Mabinogion (11 tales) and other materials, red cover, Oxford Jesus College MS. 111. Compiled with other material near Swansea, by Hopcyn ap Thomas fab Einon (1330-1408) in context of Welsh hopes for independence via Glyn Dwr.
'Y gainc gyntaf' Oxford Jesus College MS. 111 (Llyfr Coch Hergest) – p.175r:710:15.
'Yr ail gainc' Oxford Jesus College MS. 111 (Llyfr Coch Hergest) – p.179v:726:42.
'Y drydedd gainc' Oxford Jesus College MS. 111 (Llyfr Coch Hergest) – p.182v:739:34
'Y bedwaredd gainc' Oxford Jesus College MS. 111 (Llyfr Coch Hergest) – p.185v:751:13
At Bodleian Library, Oxford since 1707. Source of Pughe 1795, Guest 1838-1877 publications. *Diplomatic edition Evans 1887. See *MANUSCRIPTS LIST
1375-1425 c.Red Book of HergestSee Llyfr Coch.
1375-1475 cJesus MS. 20 and 111See *MANUSCRIPTS LIST.
1464Vaughan familyHopcyn estate gifted 1464 to Sir Roger Vaughan, incl. Llyfr Coch as forfeit to the Yorkist king.
1588Welsh Bible
1600London WelshPolitically, financially and culturally successful community of Welsh who flourished 16thC onwards, strong exchange and travel London and Wales. Generated London Welsh societies which first published parts of the Mabinogi by Pughe, as well as other key Welsh literature.
1707Llyfr Coch, OxfordThomas Wilkins gifted Llyfr Coch MS. to Jesus College, Oxford. Listed as Jesus College MS. 111, in the Bodleian Library.
1715Society, Antient Britons First major London Welsh society. Honourable and Loyal Society of Antient Britons, London; founded by Thomas Jones (d. 1731). Caroline, Princess of Wales, b. Mar 1st. as patroness, and then Prince of Wales also.
1715 -London Welsh societiesIn18th and 19thC the mainstay of Welsh culture both London and Wales. Collecting MSS. translation, publishing and funding a school, and library, meetings and good fellowship. Pughe, Iolo Morgannwg, Myfyr leading activists.
1716Welsh Charity SchoolFounded by the Honourable and Loyal Society of Antient Britons, London for poor Welsh children. In 1750s became HQ for London Welsh societies, and housed library of mediaeval manuscripts: prototype National Library of Wales. Continued to 2009 in different forms.
1735Morris, Lewis Lewis Morris of Anglesey (1701–1765) published collection of mediaeval Welsh poetry.
1741 - 1814Jones, Owen. ‘Owain Myfyr’ Successful merchant furrier, London Welsh. Generously funded & supported most of the literary revival from 1760s esp. Gwyneddigion Society. Close colleague William Owen Pughe, and Iolo Morgannwg.
1741 - 1814MyfyrSee Jones, Owen.
1746Welsh Bible, new editionsNew editions Welsh Bible, 1746 and 1752, SPCK, supervised by Richard Morris.
1747 -1826Iolo MorgannwgBorn Edward Williams, stonemason's son, educated mother. Dedicated to revival of Glamorgan literature, and bardic tradition. Est. Gorsedd ceremony 1792. Close colleague of Pughe and Myfyr on Myvyrian Archaiologie 1801 -1807. Eventually discredited for forging MSS but not until the 20thC.
1747 -1826Williams, EdwardBetter known by his bardic name Iolo Morgannwg, see that entry.
1751CymmrodorionAnrhydeddus Gymdeithas y Cymmrodorion /The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion founded, aka the Cymmrodorion, by brothers Lewis and Richard Morris, of Anglesey. Richard first president. 1755 Constitution refs. Triads, and History but not Mabinogion. (Bromwich 1986:130) From 1787 - 1820 society lapsed due to death of Richard Morris. The school continued.
1759 - 1835Pughe, William Owen (bio)B. William Owen, Llanfihangel-y-Pennant, Merionethshire, moved to London 1776 at 17yrs. Leading scholar of the London Welsh societies, supported by Owen Jones 'Myfyr' a generous merchant. 1793 – 1803 Welsh English Dictionary. 1801 -1807 with Iolo Morgannwg, Myvyrian Archaiology. 1805 had trans. the Mabinogi. 1806 Changed name to Pughe due to inheritance. 1834 had trans. & organised entire Mabinogion, but d. 1835 Merioneth aged 76.
1760, 1762, 1765OssianJames Macpherson's 'Ossian' created audience for Celtic literature outside Celtic regions, challenged Wales by the achievement. 1762 ‘Fingal.’ Later exposed as forger.
1764Evans, EvanEvan Evans (1731–1788) Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Antient Welsh Bards, 1764. Incl. the first publ. the Gododdin. Some English trans. + Latin diss. on Welsh lit. Protege of Morris bros. Response to Ossian. (ref. Constantine). Evans transcribed various mediaeval MSS incl. the Red Book of Hergest.
1770Gwyneddigion SocietyGwyneddigion Society founded, London; Owain *Myfyr first president. In 1777 Members of the required to be Welsh speaking.
1783Pughe, William OwenWilliam Owen (Pughe) became member of Society of Gwyneddigion, London. 1784 he was Secretary.
President in 1789 , 1804 , and 1820. (Until 1806 his name was William Owen.)
1792Gorsedd ceremony21 June 1792 Iolo Morgannwg held the first Gorsedd ceremony of modern times on Primrose Hill, London.
1795Juvenile AmusementsPart of the title used by William Owen (Pughe) for his pioneering trans. and publication of Pwyll I in his journal Cambrian Register. Derived from 'mab' boy, child, the concept of children's tales stuck to the Mabinogion collection though Pughe did not use it again. Also used by Edward Jones 1802.
1795Pughe, William OwenFirst publication in modern print format of a Mabinogi (or Mabinogion) text. Pwyll I, First Branch: Pwyll's sojourn in Annwfn. Publ. in English translation, as an article Cambrian Register, Pughe's own pioneering journal. More parts followed 1799, 1818, First Branch in full 1821. Originally William Owen, adding the name Pughe 1806.
1795 - 1877Censored textThe published trans. by Pughe and Guest omitted sex scenes. The Bardic Museum 1802, cited by Guest first page of her trans. did not.
1795 - 2007TranslationsFirst parts trans. by Pughe, as articles, 1795, 1799, 1821, 1829. Full trans. by Guest; series of 7 vols. 1838 -1845; 3 vols.1849, single volume 1877. Everyman edition of Guest 1902. Ellis & Ellis 1929. Jones & Jones 1949. Gantz 1976. Ford 1977. Parker 2002 (online). Bollard 2006. Davies 2008. See Diplomatic editions, and PKM.
1795, 1799, 1818, 1821Pughe, translationsThe first translation into English of some parts of the Mabinogi from Llyfr Coch. 1795 Pwyll I. 1799 Pwyll II. 1818 Pwyll III. 1821 Pwyll entire. 1829 Math. Also 1833 Taliesin. By 1834 Pughe had a complete Mabinogion trans. but died 1835 before he could publish it.
1795, 1838 - todayChildren's talesPughe 1795 titled his pioneering trans. and pub. Pwyll I 'The Mabinogion: Juvenile Amusements.' He did not use it again, but the definition continued, esp. attaching to Charlotte Guest who merely mentioned her children in her dedication. Versions of the tales specifically for children publ. regularly e.g. Lanier 1881, Webb 1984.
1795; 1849Mabinogi: juvenile talesPughe 1795 used the title 'Juvenile Amusements' but not subsequently. Stephens 1849. See Juvenile Amusements; Children's tales.
1801 -1807Myvyrian Archaiologie Pioneering work on Welsh history and literature compiled by William Owen Pughe and Iolo Morgannwg, sponsored by wealthy and generous Owen Jones 'Myfyr,' London furrier. The Archaiologie lists many of the persons in the Mabinogi.
1802Bardic MuseumEdward Jones, harpist to royal family, included trans. Pwyll I, and part of Pwyll II, under correct title 'Mabinogi' and 'Juvenile Amusements.' Includes sex scenes omitted by Pughe, and later by Guest.
1812 - 1895Guest, Charlotte (bio)b. Charlotte Bertie, Lincolnshire; earl's dau. Married Welsh ironmaster Josiah John Guest 29 July1833. Expert linguist, studied Welsh. Published the first complete collection 'The Mabinogion' Llandovery and London, bilingual editions 1838 -1845, series; 1849, 3 vols. English trans only, 1 vol. 1877. Also politically active, and businesswoman, 10 children. Widowed, remarried 1855, created new life. d. 1895 aged 82 in England.
1815 -1818Tegid, Llyfr CochJohn Jones (‘Tegid’) transcribed Llyfr Coch for ‘Serjt. Bosanquet’, later Sir John Bernard Bosanquet (NLW Archive/ Guest estimates 1818.) Tegid was young scholar 23 -25, at Oxford.
1833Cymreigyddion, society2nd Nov. Cymdeithas Cymreigyddion y Fenni, Abergavenny Welsh Society founded. Founder members Charlotte and John Josiah Guest, with Augusta Hall (aka Lady Llanover).
1838Guest, CharlotteThe Mabinogion: Part I. ( Lady of the Fountain, or Owain.)
1838 -1845Guest, CharlotteThe earliest complete modern publication 'The Mabinogion' bilingual Welsh and English. A series of 7 vols. covering the Mabinogion, incl. Taliesin. All lavishly bound, illust., copious scholarly notes. Pub. both Tonn Press, Llandovery, Wales; and Longmans, London. Followed by 1949 as 3 vols. and 1877 as the English trans. only. The main publication for almost a century until *Ellis 1929.
1838 -1845, 1877Mabinogion, TheEarliest prose literature of Britain. Collection of 11 prose tales from the mediaeval Llyfr Coch and Llyfr Gwyn MSS which were in Middle Welsh. Published and translated first in part by Pughe 1795, 1821, 1829; then fully by Guest 1838 -1845, 1849, and 1877. See other Translators, Diplomatic editions, and PKM.
1838 - 1845Guest, Charlotte7 vols. -- 1838, v. 1; ‘The Lady of the Fountain’. (Owain). 1839, v. 2; ‘Peredur the son of Evrawc’. 1840, v. 3; ‘Geraint the son of Erbin’. 1842, v. 4; ‘Kilhwch and Olwen’.
1843, v. 5; ‘The Dream of Rhonabwy and The tale of Pwyll, Prince of Dyved’. 1845, v. 6; Pwyll Pendevig Dyved (Cymraeg text), Branwen the daughter of Llyr, Manawyddan the son of Llyr, and Math the son of Mathonwy’. 1849, v. 7; The dream of Mayen Wbdig, Lludd and Llevelys, and The history of Taliesin.
1839Guest, CharlotteThe Mabinogion, Part II. (Peredur the Son of Evrawc)
1840Guest, CharlotteThe Mabinogion; Part IV. (Geraint the Son of Erbin.)
1842Guest, CharlotteThe Mabinogion; Part IV. (Kilhwch and Olwen or the Twrch Trwyth.)
1843Guest, CharlotteThe Mabinogion; Part V. (The Dream of Rhonabwy and The tale of Pwyll, Prince of Dyved’) Welsh text Pwyll v. 6.
1845Guest, CharlotteThe Mabinogion; Part VI. (Pwyll Pendevig Dyved: Welsh text see v. V; Lludd and Llefelys.Branwen the daughter of Llyr, Manawyddan the son of Llyr, and Math the son of Mathonwy.)
1849Guest, CharlotteThe Mabinogion; Part VII. (The dream of Mayen Wbdig, Lludd and Llevelys, and The history of Taliesin.)
1849Guest, Charlotte3 vols. edition of her Mabinogion (12 tales) bilingual, compiling her previous 1838-1845 series of 7 vols. Lavishly bound, illust. pub. both Tonn Press, Llandovery and Longmans, London.
1849Stephens, Thomas'The Literature of the Kymry: Being a critical essay .. language and literature of Wales during the twelfth and two succeeding centuries.' Merthyr Tydfil pharmacist, Eisteddford winner, protege of the Guests. CAWCS study 2013 - 2015.
1852 - 1930Evans, John Gwenogvryn (bio)Evans, of Carmarthenshire, sacrificed pastorate due to ill health. He publ. facsimiles of mediaeval manuscripts on his own printing press. Moved Oxford 1880, mentored by John Rhys. 1887 diplomatic edition Llyfr Coch; 1907 Llyfr Gwyn. 1898 -1910 major catalogue of Welsh MSS. Negotiated gift of Llyfr Gwyn to Aberystwyth.
1867Arnold, Matthew: quote"the mediæval story-teller is pillaging an antiquity of which he does not fully possess the secret; he is like a peasant building his hut on the site of Halicarnassus or Ephesus; he builds, but what he builds is full of materials of which he knows not the history, or knows by a glimmering tradition merely; stones ‘not of this building’, but of an older architecture.” (1867:61)
1868Skene, William ForbesFour Ancient Books of Wales (Edinburgh, 1868) Anthology incl. Llyfr Coch, a key source MS. for the Mabinogi. Skene was a Scottish historian and antiquarian. Superseded by Evan's accurate text from Llyfr Coch 1887.
1872University AberystwythUniversity College Aberystwyth founded.
1873 - 1936Ellis, Thomas Peter (bio)Authority on medieval Welsh law, and Punjab customary law . B. Oswestry, educated Oxford, career Indian Civil Service for 20 years, highly praised. 1921 retired to Dolgelley. 'Tribal Law and Custom in Medieval Wales' 2 vols. 1926. Major trans. 'The Mabinogion' 1929. Researched church history Wales, various articles in periodicals, esp. The Welsh Outlook.
1877Guest, CharlotteNew edition ‘The Mabinogion’ (12 tales) no Welsh text, highly condensed. Guest Intro. footnote refs applying to Colonel Vaughan of Hengwrt, owner of Llyfr Gwyn, but he had died.This edition would be adopted by Everyman library 1902, not to be replaced until 1949.
1887Evans, John Gwenogwvryn & Rhys, JohnDiplomatic text, transliteration as closely as possible of Llyfr Coch. The labour was done by Gwenogwvryn, inspired and supported by Rhys.
1887, 1889Mabinogi: bardic apprenticeRhys (1887). Loth, French trans. (1889).
1887, 1907Diplomatic textTransliteration as closely as possible from a manuscript source. See Gwenogwvryn 1887 and 1907.
1887, 1907Evans, J. GwenogvrynTranscriber of the Llyfr Coch MS. (1887); Llyfr Gwyn (1907) i.e. diplomatic editions. These painstaking services supported much more accurate translations and analysis from then onward.
1889Loth, Joseph M.Trans. third language, French; after trans. to English by Guest 1838 - 1845. 'Les Mabinogion: Traduits en Entier pour la Première Fois en Français.' Based largely on the Guest version.
1892Annwyl, EdwardProfessor of Welsh at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. See *Zeitschrift fur celtische Philologie journal.
1897, 1899, 1901Zeitschrift fur celtische PhilologieFirst international journal for Celtic research est. 1897. The first issue incl. the First and Second Branches of the Mabinogi, by Edward Annwyl. Third and Fourth branches followed 1899, 1901.
1898 - 1910Evans, John Gwenogvryn'Report on Manuscripts in the Welsh Language.' A major catalogue commissioned by the Historical Manuscripts Commission. Updates by Huws 2000, 2002.
1902, 1949Everyman editionGuest's edition ‘The Mabinogion’ (12 tales) no Welsh text, highly condensed, single vol. adopted by Everyman library 1902, not to be replaced until 1949 by Jones & Jones edition.
1904Llyfr Gwyn, NLWLlyfr Gwyn manuscript bought by Sir John Williams, presented it to the National Library of Wales. The gift had much to do with the decision to site NLW at Aberystwyth.
1907Evans, John Gwenogwvryn & Rhys, JohnDiplomatic text, transliteration as closely as possible of Llyfr Gwyn. The labour was done by Gwenogwvryn, inspired and supported by Rhys.
1912 Mabinogi: hero tale of PryderiGruffydd 1912 and later. Derived from the Irish compert tradition but assumes the four types are stages of a hero's biography, instead of types of tales.
1912Mabon, MaponosGruffydd
1912 - 1955Gruffydd - RhiannonFirst, Third Branch analysis. (Early School)
1912 - 1955 opusGruffydd, William G.Early scholar, with Arnold agenda of reconstruction. Charted a strong Irish influence, if not origin, for the Mabinogi. Built an elaborate process for reworking Rhiannon and Math mythos as archaic deities. Highly speculative methods. (Early School)
1912 - 1977Irish influenceGruffydd, Loomis and Mac Cana emphasised Irish influence in the Mabinogi, esp, Second Branch. Sims-Williams countered this 1982. Some items eg. Iron House, Watchman Device do cross over, others like Manawyddan/ Manannan are not clearcut, and much is found in international motifs (Jackson).
1920 onwardWasteland MythHanson-Smith finds the Wasteland in the First Branch (1982, repr. 1996) which is critiqued by Parker 2002, who finds it rather in the Third Branch, as did Gruffydd (1953). For a classic profile of the Wasteland see Weston 1920.
1921Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Work began to codify the Welsh language. First publ. 4 vols. 1967 - 2002
1923, 1928Gruffydd - MathFourth Branch analysis (Early School)
1928 -64 opusLoomis, Roger S.Old School theorist, reconstrucing myth with particular focus on Arthurian legend, where Welsh and Irish texts seen as precursors. See also Gruffydd, Jackson, Mac Cana.
1929Ellis & Lloyd translationFirst 20thC trans. of 'The Mabinogion,' and first successor to *Guest editions. Aimed at accuracy, poorly received by critics as a merely literal interpretation. This can make it useful for students. See Ifor Williams review for list of errors. Both text and notes benefit from Ellis' professional legal expertise.
1930Date 1060 c.Ifor Williams “a man from Dyfed joined together old stories of Gwent, Dyfed and Gwynedd around 1060 when the three kingdoms had been united.” (PKM 1930: xli) Jones & Jones "early in the second half of the eleventh century.” (1929: ix)
1930PKM'Pedair Keinc Mabinogi.' Title used by Ifor Williams, 1930 and later reprints, for his authoritative Welsh version of the Mabinogi. PKM became established short form.
1933Hen bersoniaid llengar'The Old Clerics' name coined Robert Thomas Jenkins for certain churchmen, first half 19thC. By late 18thC Anglican church in Wales had became English focused. These Welsh identified clerics though conservative, supported church reform; aimed to collect, study and publish old manuscripts of Welsh poetry, prose.
1940DIASDublin Institute for Advanced Studies, School of Celtic Studies, est. 1940; under the Institute for Advanced Studies Act, 1940, Ireland. Key publications by R. L. Thomson, D. L. Thomson, Ifor Williams, Brynley Roberts, Ian Hughes.
1949Jones & Jones translation
1953, 1978, 1981, 1987, 1996Pwyll, chastityImplicit indication of Pryderi's true paternity Gruffydd (1953) and Ford (1981). Structural analysis: Gantz and O'Coileen. Gantz opposition with Third branch adultery (1978, repr. 1996). O'Coileen Pwyll's later marriage challenges trad. Celtic values, stressing patience, humility and sexual responsibility (1987, repr. 1996). cf. *Manawyddan's self restraint. Source romance Ami and Amile, brotherly friendship theme Hemming (1996). Dangeros to do otherwise, Parker (2002).
1955 -1977 opusMac Cana, ProinsasEarly School theorist. Focus: Second Branch, Branwen. Like Gruffydd, he sees the text as a 'garbled account' of an Expedition to the Otherworld to win the Cauldron of Resurrection from Pen Annwfn. Convincing Irish analogues for the Iron House, and the 'Watchman Device.' Relates Bendigeidfran to Bran Mac Febail, Manawyddan to Manannan Mac Lir. But other Irish parallel motifs he finds are also international.
1957 repr. 1986, 2003, 2010Thomson, R. L.Pwyll, First Branch, in Welsh with very useful Welsh-English Vocabulary list. Introduction in English, and Notes. Ideal for first attempts at studying some Mabinogi in Middle Welsh. See also Gareth Morgan's free online course 1996.
1957, 1964, 1996, 2012.Middle Welsh, learning aidsR. L. Thomson. Pwyll, First Branch, in Welsh with Welsh-English Vocabulary list. Intro. in English, and Notes. (1957 and repr.) /// Gareth Morgan's free online course centred on Pwyll vocabulary (1996) /// Roland Schafer, compact PDF download (2012) summarising Middle Welsh grammar from Evans classic of 1964.
1961Graves, Robert.Usually dismissed as a visionary poet, Graves' 'White Goddess' has a synchronic reading of the Mabinogi as literature. (Ref. Parker 2002)
1961MotifA component of a tale found in similar form in other tales. This type of analysis began via Aarne and Thompson 1928, part of the global outlook of the period. Mabinogi motifs examples are the Otherworld Mistress, Chaste Brother/Chaste Friend. Folklorists *Jackson 1961 from Highland lore, and *Wood 1985 'Calumniated Wife' both esp. developed Mabinogi motif analysis.
1961 - 1974 opusJackson, Kenneth H.Drew parallels with oral story-tellers in the Scottish Islands, used folklore system of Aarne and Thompson, Wesselski and Krohn, to identify international motifs in the tales. (Early School)
1961 and repr.Troiedd Ynys PrydeinTriads of Britain. Many of these are cited in the Mabinogi. Comprehensively translated and annotated by Rachel Bromwich, with a very good A-Z index of personal names with notes.
1961, 2006, 2012, 20141 INDEXESTroiedd Ynys Prydein, Bromwich (1961) incl. detailed index of names. /// The Celtic Encyclopedia, 5 vols. Koch (2006) Lots of articles on persons, places, themes and scholars, with bibliogs. Online via Scribd. /// Welsh Prose 1300 -1425: Mabinogion, Univ. Cardiff. (2012) Searchable online repository of manuscript texts. Find all instances of a term. /// The Mabinogi Bibliography, Morgain (2012 via zotero) Searchable,formatted citations. Over 1,000 listings./// The Mabinogi Index A-Z, Morgain 2014. Quick online lookup of persons, places, terms in the text./// The Mabinogi Tiimeline (short) Morgain 2014. One page summary of dated events. /// The Index of Mabinogi Scholarship A-Z, Morgain 2014. Online searchable index of manuscripts, scholars, translations, etymology and theories.
1967Levi-Strauss, quote"these sequences [of narrative events] are organized, on planes of different levels (of abstraction), in accordance with schemata, which exist simultaneously, superimposed on one another: just as a melody composed for several voices is held within bounds by contraints within two dimensions, first by its on melodic line which is horizontal, and second by the contrapunctual schemata (settings) which are vertical." (Lévi-Strauss, Claude The Myth of Asidwal In: The Structural Study of Myth and Totemism ed Edmund Leach, London: Tavistock Press,1967: 17) Relevant to Mabinogi structuralism.
1969Date 1170 - 1190Saunders Lewis dating (1969: 137-142)
1970Date 1050 - 1120Charles- Edwards (1970 263-298); repr. 1996.
1974Bollard themesThree *themes of friendship, marriage and feud run throughout the Mabinogi. Thematic analysis is part of the new perspective Bollard pioneered, examining the work as fine mediaeval literature rather than fragmentary, corrupted myth. Here the Mabinogi is traditional material reworked to express mediaeval concerns.
1974Bollard's structuralismMajor shift in perspective, from the historical diachronic to the literary synchronic approach. Traces similar situations (*doublets) which connect across different tales, or stages of a tale, so the outcomes make a statement. He uses the *interlacing of Celtic artwork as a metaphor for the technique. Traditional material reworked to express mediaeval concerns. See also Bollard themes.
1974Interlacing quote""an apt analogy for the structure which emerges is interlaced artwork in which threads of textile (or text) repeatedly come to the fore, and recede, eventually creating a design which can be perceived as a whole, and which often looks deceptively simple until it is scrutinized in detail." (Bollard, 1975: 280) See *Bollard's structuralism; Bollard's themes.
1974Mabinogi: tale of descendants'stories of the old Brittonic gods from whom the leading Welsh dynasties in early historical times claimed descent.' (Hamp 1974:245) Gruffydd Loomis.
1974StructuralismAnalyses plot action on its reward or penalty: esp. the conclusion. Author judgement thus implicit. Identifies similar actions at different stages of a tale, or across different tales; the results build themes, and may reveal author's judgement e.g. the duels by *Pwyll and *Pryderi in the First and Second Branch. See *Bollard, *Gantz, *Ford. Draws on Vinaver (1971); *Levi-Strauss.
1974 postRevisionist SchoolWill Parker's term for scholars of the later 20thC period, who contrast with his *Old School. Post 1974, the pioneering analysis by Bollard, amplified by *Gantz, *Ford; precursor *Graves. This group examines the text as a sophisticated mediaeval literature, rather than corrupted myths. See *Structuralism; *Thematic approach.
1975InterlacingAnalogy of Celtic artwork to explain how situations recur across tales, or throughout them, to build themes. Derived from Vinaver's analysis of the Arthurian Vulgate cycle (1971). See *Interlacing quote, Bollard; *Bollard's structuralism, *Bollard's themes.
1975Revisionist SchoolWill Parker divides Mabinogi scholarship into the Early School, and the Revisionist, or Contemporary School.
1975Thematic studyIdentifies themes, and traces them across tales collecting evidence for and against e.g. Bollard's themes of Friendship, Marriage and Feud.
1976Gantz translationPenguin edition, very popular. A modernised style with good flow which is considered to sacrifice accuracy.
1977Ford, translationBalances being easy to read and accurate. 'Native tales only:' the Four Branches; Culhwch; Lludd and Lleuelys; both Taliesin tales; the Cad Goddeu. Map. Introduction with good review of scholarship to 1977. Useful 6 page Glossary. Pronunciation guide. Page index of names. Recommended. (Patrick K. Ford, 1977)
1977Pryderi, sea godFord suggests a possible sea god dynasty, making Pryderi a son of Manawydan uab Llŷr. Teyrnon represents Manawyddan, the sea deity mating the horse goddess. Ref. Teyrnon's etymology 'lord of the tumultuous sea.' (Ford 1977: 12)
1977, 1982Ford, Patrick K.Translation 1977 of the 'native tales.' Synchronic analysis 'Prolegomena to a Reading of the Mabinogi' 1982 which follows *Bollard, and draws on *Levi-Strauss. Major scholar of the Revisionist School (Parker, 2002)
1977, 1987, 1989ManawyddanTitular hero of Third Branch. As Manawyddan fab Llyr problematic parallel with *Irish Manannan mac Lir proposed by Mac Cana (1977). Ford suggests Pryderi as his son. (1977) *Koch link to *Mandubracios (1987). *Welsh, transgressive rewrite of the Celtic hero myth (1989). On his personal restraint cf. *Pwyll, chastity.
1977, post.Synchronic approachThe text as a mediaeval literature, esp. in terms of its mediaeval audience perspectives. Includes *thematic and *structural analysis through stages of drama, or across different tales. Contrast *Diachronic approach.
1977, pre.Diachronic approachHistorical approach seeking origins, *dates. Attemped reconstruction of original version, and tracing stages of development. *Gruffydd 1912 -1955; ,Newstead 1939; *Jackson 1961 - 1974 ; *Mac Cana 1955 -1977. Contrast *Synchronic approach.
1978Gantz 'Thematic Structure'Gantz supports Bollard's structuralism.
1980Sovereignty mythCatherine McKenna cautions no explicit British Sovereignty Goddess, but identifies Rhiannon as fulfilling this tutelary Celtic goddess: embodied as a sacred mare, ritually married by the recognised king to generate fertility to land and people. (1980, repr. 1996) For the Irish Sovereignty Goddess see Mac Cana ( 1955-1956: 76-114).
1980, 1984CAWCSCentre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies, Aberystwyth. Est. voluntary basis 1980, funded 1984. See Early History of the Centre
1981Ford 'Structural Approaches'Ford supports Bollard's structuralism.
1981, 1983'Moving Being' open air theatreOpen air bilingual performance of full Mabinogi at Cardiff Castle, mixed media (light, sound, music, actors)
1985, repr. 1996Calumniated WifeRhiannon falsely accused of infanticide, Branwen abused, exemplifying folklore motif of Calumniated Wife: gender, foreigners. (Wood 1985, repr. 1996) Rhiannon is, strictly, a calumniated mother.
1987, 1989MandubraciosEtym. Dark Traitor. See Koch's link to Manawyddan (1987), and Welsh for Manawyddan analysis as transgressive reworking. (1989)
1987, 1992, 2006Koch, JohnKoch gives links between Iron Age/ Celtic protagonists and Mabinogi counterparts. Manawyddan, Mandubracios (1987); Bran, Brennos (1992), in diachronic approach. His Celtic Encyclopedia (2006) has many powerful summary articles on Mabinogi characters and issues.
1988 and laterCyfarwyddStoryteller, anonymous performer of prose tales in the oral tradition. Not clear if this was strictly separate to the beirdd, court poets; or a role adopted by either the court poet or popular entertainers. See Sioned Davies for use of formulaic patterns and other effects of oral tradition.
1988 and later.Formula, formulaicA form of words used as familiar set piece description to aid storyteller memory, and audience comprehension. Key tool of oral tradition. Sioned Davies (1988 and later).
1989Welsh, Andrew*Manawyddan's pacifist inaction contradicts the Celtic heroic tradition of courage and impulse. Welsh draws on *Koch's Iron Age bridging to Mandubracios the traitor (1987), suggesting Manawyddan is a subversive rewrite as an anti-hero.
1996Gwynedd*Lordship inheritance, Sullivan (1996).
1996LordshipFourth *Branch *Gwynedd gender conflict between matriline and male agnatic (uncle - nephew) Sullivan (1996)
1996Sullivan anthologyAn important collection of articles covering most key themes of Mabinogi scholarship over the later 20thC, both diachronic and synchronic, textual and contextual.
1996, 2001Reading Middle Welsh:... Based on the MabinogiCourse book by Gareth Evans, based on First Branch. Online in 2001.
2001Mary Jones online 'Celtic Encyclopedia'Mary Jones began her website with links to relevant online texts.
2001Reading Middle Welsh:... Based on the MabinogiCourse book by Gareth Evans, based on First Branch. First publ. 1996.
2002Old SchoolWill Parker's term for scholars of the early academic period, who shared a reconstructive mythological agenda, identifying strong Irish influences. Opus periods Gruffydd (1912 -55)' Loomis (1928 -64); (Mac Cana (1955 - 77) and Jackson (1961 -73)' Represented by Arnold quote 1867: thus the text is seen as corrupt, and the duty is to repair and interpret.
2002Parker's Bibliographic EssayConcise history of Mabinogi scholarship 19th, 20thC.
2003Parker translation onlineFirst Mabinogi text online, by Will Parker. One webpage per Branch, with lots of notes.
2004Guest trans. online GutenbergCharlotte Guest's English translation placed online on the Gutenberg website.
2004Online text GutenbergGutenberg publ. Guest trans. online.
2006Bollard translation"Legend and Landscape of Wales" A particularly beautiful work with illustrative photography by Anthony Griffiths of Mabinogi sites today. An accurate, thoughtful and flowing *translation, highly recommended as first encounter.
2006Celtic EncyclopediaJohn Koch's monumental opus has many articles on persons, places and themes of the Mabinogi, as well as many of its scholars. Available online via Scribd. List of useful articles in the Mabinogi Bibliography, link in page header.
2007Bollard's challengeBollard challenges the unity of the Mabinogion collection, because there is no coherence in it except its provenance in the same manuscript.
2007Davies translationSioned *Davies modern translation.
2008, 2009'Magnificent Myths of the Mabinogi'Bilingual performance of full Mabinogi, Manon Eames + Nat. Youth Theatre. Aberystwyth. Also staged by Jill Williams, Pomtardawe 2009.
2012, 2013Colour, HemmingFeatured colours are red, white, paleness, grey/ dun and gold. Red and white associate with magical beings See Hemming 2012, 2013. Morgain 2014, 2015.
2013Dating, RodwayRodway (2013) summary of his dating research from 1998 onwards. See *MANUSCRIPTS LIST.
2013Morgain, Mabinogi BibliographyComprehensive online annotated bibliography of the Mabinogi, with much material on the Mabinogion, and some of its modern interpretations. Searchable, provides formatted citations. Uses zotero.
2014Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru ONLINEThe monumental national dictionary goes online as searchable database. Work began 1921. First publ. 4 vols. 1967-2002.
2014Mabinogi Study websiteThis website established by Shan Morgain.
LanguageArawn urenhin AnnwnArawn, king of Annwfn. First *Branch magical or divine protagonist of *Pwyll I plot.
LanguageArglwydHigh Lord, title for a king such as *Arawn. The more general title used between any nobility was * 'unben' lord, See esp. dialogue *Pwyll - Arawn, First *Branch
LanguageBendigaidfran'Bendigaid' blessing. 'Bran' crow, rook, raven, carrion' symbol of war. Bromwich suggests 'Bendigeid' corruption of 'Penn.' (284-286) Ford (1981) sees the 'blessing' name as post-Christian.
LanguageBranchSee Cainc, Pedair Cainc, Four Branches.
LanguageBranwen'Brân' crow, rook, raven, carrion. 'Gwen' white, holy. Ford (1981) has her name as older than her brother's.
LanguageCainc, CeinciauBranch, Branches. The Four Branches are a set of tightly interconnected tales, making up the Mabinogi. Each Branch has several tales, standing more or less alone.
LanguageCantrefA measure of territory based on 100. 'Cant' 100. 'Tref' settlement' so poss. 100 settlements. Or a levy of 100 armed fighters. Dyfed originally had 7 cantrefs.
LanguageCigfaMeans 'meat, meat market, butcher’s shop.'
LanguageCwn AnnwfnHounds of Annwfn, First Branch, famously bright white with red ears; Miranda Green compares Táin Bó Regamna, greyish red wolf, and white cows with red ears as "supernatural." (1997: 28) Also magical Bergin, “White red-eared cows,” Ériu 14 (1946) 170.
LanguageCymidei Cymeinfoll'Cymid' battle, war. 'Cymaint' equally. 'Boll' distended. Suggests Cymidei is pregnant with war. Like the Cauldron she births warriors.
LanguageEfnisien, name'Efnys' hostile. He causes ‘strife between the two brothers when they were most loving.’ Contrast Nisien, his twin opposite.
LanguageEisted, SittingThe magic of Gorsedd Arberth is set off by a noble deliberately sitting on it; thus Rhiannon appears to Pwyll, and the Devastation of Dyfed is caused. cf the modern National Eisteddfod, and a 'sitting' of Parliament.
LanguageEuroswydd'Eur' gold, splendid. 'Oswydd' enemy. Poss. gave half his qualities to each son. (Frankel, 2006: 28)
LanguageGwawl uab Clud'Gwawl' wall, hedge, boundary. 'Clud' ‘carriage, load, burden,.wealth.’
LanguageGwern uab Matholwch'Gwern' alder, swamp, shaft, spear, lance.
LanguageGwri Wallt EurynPryderi's childhood name, Gwri Golden Hair. Possible associations 'gwri' verb 'gwriaf' to act or behave manfully; or 'gwrid' meaning glow of colour in the cheeks indicating youth and health.
LanguageHafganThe other king of Annwfn, Arawn's rival. 'Haf' summer. 'Can' white, shining brilliant, white dog, white horse. 'Cain' fine, fair, beautiful.
LanguageHefeydd Hen'Hen' old.
LanguageHounds of AnnwfnSee Cwn Annwfn.
LanguageIsland of the Mighty.Ynys Y Kedeirn.
LanguageLlasar Llaes Gyfnewid'Llasar' Irish .lasar' flame. (PKM 1930: 179-80) Also azure, a blue substance used to colour shields. 'Llaes' long, free, careless. 'Cyfnewid' change, exchange, trade. Williams suggests a ‘free-flowing, changing flame’ the fire supports the cauldron on its back; the azure may ref. the warriors he seeds in his wife. Poss. leader of band or warriors. Llasar also in 3rd Branch as skilled decorator.
LanguageLlyrMeaning 'Sea.' Father of Bran / Bendigeidfran, Branwen, and Manawyddan.Also father, by another wife Penarddun, of twin sons Efnisien and Nisien .See also Pryderi, sea god, as son of Manawyddan.
LanguageLordSee unben, arglwyd.
LanguageLysCourt. A court was usually a mobile company of the lord's family, officers, courtiers, fighters, minstrels, and servants. It moved to different halls, also called courts, such as Arberth or Aberffraw. Gwynedd, Fourth Branch was exceptional as Math was immobilised so his nephews did the royal circuit for him.
LanguageMabboy, son. Theories on the purpose of the Mabinogi derive from this etymology. See Mabinogi: juvenile tales; bardic apprentice; tale of youth; tale of descendants; hero tale of Pryderi. Also see Mabon, Maponos.
LanguageMabinogi: tale of youthMediaeval Latin 'infantia,' Norman French 'enfances.'
LanguagemabynogyonMediaeval copyist mistake which occurs just once, at the end of the First branch. This was assumed by 18th and 19thC scholars as a plural of 'mabinogi.' Used as a title both by Pughe and Guest.
LanguagePeir dadeni, cauldronCauldron of rebirth, cf Cymidei Cymeinfoll its female keeper.
LanguagePenarddun'Pen' head. 'Arddun' beautiful, fair.
LanguagePendaran Dyfed, name'Pen' head, chief. 'Taran' thunder. 'Dar' lord, oak tree.
LanguagePrif Rieni, High MatriarchsTitle accorded to Branwen, also in the Trioedd, Triads.
LanguagePryderi, nameFrom Rhiannon's exclamation "escor uym pryder im pei gwir hynny ..." cf. Arianrhod tricked into speaking to her rejected son, both showing naming custom derived from mother's first words. 'Pryder' thought, anxiety, care, ‘worry. Ifor Williams adds gloss of 'loss' from Brittany, PKM: 156. R. L. Thomson 'escor' to give birth, indicating a pun, to be relieved of, or give birth to. (Thomson 1957: 41 n. 616) See also Pryderi, Triad.
LanguagePwyll pendeuic DyuetPwyll Prince of Dyfed. The first opening words of the Mabinogi, and of the First Branch.
LanguageRhiannon, prefix'Rhiain' queen, maiden, virgin.
LanguageRhiannon, suffix --onDivinity, also in Teyrnon, Gwydion. R. L. Thomson adds Amaethon, Mabon, Modron, Govannon as Celtic traditional. (1957: 33 n. 284. Refs given to Llyfr Gwyn 1907.)
LanguageStorytellerSee Cyfarwydd
LanguageTeyrnon Twryf Uliant'Teyrn' ruler, monarch. 'Twryf ' poss. tumult, noise. Line 637 spelled 'teyrnon toryfliant' Llyfr Gwyn spelled ' twr bliant.' 'Toryf' crowd’ and' twr' heap, tower. R. L. Thomson 'Uliant' poss. either from 'lliant' waters, sea; or 'bliant' fabric, trans. as linen. Patrick Ford suggests 'Lord of the tumultuous sea' (1977: 12)
LanguageUnben, LordTitle used between nobles of any rank, as courtesy. Also trans. 'chieftain.' The higher title is arglwyd, perhaps High Lord, for a king such as Arawn. See esp. dialogue Pwyll - Arawn.
LanguageYnys Y KedeirnIsland of the Mighty.
Language, genealogyCigfa uerch Wynn GohoywWife of Pryderi. Gwynn Gohoyw uab Gloyw Wallt Lydan uab Casnar Wledig o dyledogyon yr ynys hon, ‘of the highborn ones of the island.’ Gwyn ‘white, fair haired’, Gohoyw ‘fine, lively.’ Gloyw Wallt Lydan is ‘bright wide hair.’ Casnar Wledig is hero, or king.
Language.Four Branches, The.*Pedair Cainc. 'Pedair' four. 'Cainc' branch. Description under Pedair Cainc Mabinogi.
ListAnimals list 1, First BranchStag in Glyn Cuch. Cwn Annwn, Hounds of Annwn. Pwyll's hounds. Arawn's horse. (Implicitly Pwyll's horse) Horses at the duel, esp. herald, two duellists. Greyhounds, hawks exchanged as gifts. Rhiannon's large, pale horse. Two horses follow her. Pwyll's 100 riders. (Badger) Female stag hound and her puppies. Teyrnon's pedigree mare and her foal, foal given to Gwri. Monster abductor. Gwent horses. Horses & dogs offered to Teyrnon.
ListAnimals list 2, Second Branch.Mutilated horses, replacements in compensation. Matholwch hunting (?) Branwen's starling. Irish pigs. Crane (skin bag). Adar Rhiannon, Birds of Rhiannon.
ListAnimals list 3, Third Branch.Hunting in Dyfed, fishes. Flocks and herds. Wild beasts. Hunted meat (?), wild swarms. Henford, England implicit horses (saddle making). Pryderi and Manawyddan's hunting dogs (two packs ?). White boar. Horde of mice (shapeshifted warband, shapeshifted ladies). Gnats and birds of the air. Pregnant mouse (shapeshifted). (Collars of) asses.
ListAnimals list 4, Fourth Branch.Swine/ pigs of Annwfn, half sow half hog. Oxen. Twelve horses, twelve grey hounds, black with a white breast. Shapeshifted: stag. hind, fawn; boar, sow, piglet; he-wolf, she-wolf, wolf cub. Dylan of the sea (?), fish. Wren (prey). Exhausted stag, hunting dogs (Goronwy). Buck goat. Sow. Maggots. Eagle. Worms. Owl.
ListDisguise & deceptionPwyll and Arawn swap appearances with each other; a shapeshift but like disguise aimed to deceive Hafgan and the magical compact with him. Pwyll dresses as beggar to deceive Gwawl. Rhiannon presents her powerful bottomless bag as a 'small bag.' The Irish hide men in apparent bags of flour. Llwyd appears successively as a scholar, a priest and a bishop to deceive Manawyddan. Gwydion appears as a storyteller to Pryderi to trick him; as shapeshift shoemaker to Arianrhod to trick her.
ListGiantismRhiannon bears people on her back as part of her penalty cf St. Non's marks on rock. Gwri/ Pryderi grows more than ordinary child. Llasar Llaes Gyfewid and Cymidei Kymeinwoll keepers of the Cauldron. Bran too huge to enter building, and stretches as bridge across river for his army to walk upon.
ListMagic wandMagicians use wand to perform shapeshifting, but Arawn shapeshifts himself and Pwyll without mention of a wand.. Wand shapeshifts - Llwyd shifts his wife from mouse form, implies other shapeshifts similarly.
ListMen, listArawn, Pwyll, Hafgan, Hyfaidd Hen, Gwawl, Teyrnon, Monster abductor (?), Pendaran Dyfed. Bran, Manawyddan, Nisien, Efnisien, Matholwch, Llasar Llaes Gyfewid, baby Gwern. Llwyd, Gwydion, Gilfaethwy, Math, Lleu, Goronwy. See also Seven Riders, Seven Survivors lists.
ListMen, minor list, First Branch.PWYLL I Pwyll's hunting companions. Arawn's retainers, servant boys. Annwfn Earl, Arawn's nobles, assembly at Annwfn duel, herald for duel, Hafgan's nobles, Dyfed nobles. PWYLL II Dyfed speaker at the Mound, Pwyll's company at the Mound, two men follow Rhiannon, Gwawl's company of men (and women). Pwyll's household, Pwyll's host of 99 men, guarantors, minstrels, Dyfed men (and women). PWYLL III Dyfed nobles (men of the land), Rhiannon's sages, guests of the Arberth court (incl. women), Gwent grooms & stable boys, Teyrnon's informants, Teyrnon's two rider companions to Arberth, implicit Arberth servants.

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